Beyond the Flower: utilization of the Hemp Stalk for Products and Applications

Introduction

Hemp in the us and globally is a hot subject due to the green nature, sustainability, and zero or carbon footprint that is low. This is only the tip of the iceberg with respect to applications while most of the

world has been flower-centric due to the health benefits of cannabinoids and terpenes. The plant that is entire including flower, seed, stalk, leaves, and root, has 50,000 different uses. For example, the stalk can be used for consumer textiles, industrial textiles, paper and building material. The seeds may be used for industrial products, foods, energy, and body care items. The leaves can be used for foods, animal bedding, mulch, and composting. The roots can be used for organic composting, nutrients, and as a remedy for other health conditions.hempJust as any manufactured product requires some type of testing for accuracy, purity, stability, durability, etc., so do

-based products. The testing may require several analytical instruments, physical testing machines, x-ray equipment as well as other testing devices. This communication will focus on the stalk, providing an overview of some applications and the instruments needed to ensure finished product quality.hempTextiles because of space limitations, and the nearly impossible task of discussing 50,000 possible products and Industry Textiles

The hemp stalk consist of an layer that is outer the bast fiber and an inner layer of woody pith. The layer that is outer employed for textiles even though the internal layer may be used for gas, building materials, and animal bedding.hempExamples of hemp textiles include woven and knit materials, non-woven fibre mats, yarns, and rope. Materials may be made from 100% hemp or blended along with other materials such as for instance cotton, flax, or silk. As an example, clothes product could possibly be made out of a blend of 30% cotton and 70% hemp fibre. A product that is blended be made softer or more durable. There are many advantages of

over cotton. Hemp can be grown nearly everywhere and with less oversight whereas cotton only grows in moderate climates and requires more water and pesticides. In addition, one acre of

can produce as much fiber as up to three acres of cotton. Hemp is also a stronger fiber and more mildew resistant.

Tensile Testing

Stretchability of Fabrics

Hemp fabrics can be used for T-shirts, dresses, hoodies, underwear, socks, other forms of apparel, as well as for household textiles such as blankets, duvets, towels, tablecloths, and upholstery. Hemp fibers are fine enough to make fabrics with a thread count of 250-300, which is considered percale, a closely woven fabric that is fine for sheets. An harvest that is early produce a softer fabric. The fabric is very breathable, has high-moisture-wicking abilities, and heat-retention that is low. The materials have actually a decreased chance for pilling where brief or broken materials team together as a result of abrasion and start to become tangled in a knot that is tiny ball, known as a pill.

Hemp fabrics are considered to have medium stretchability or give. Any of these parameters may be changed by blending with other fibers.

Example of a Universal Testing Machine and Stress-Strain plot

The physical properties of textiles are an result that is interdependent of kind, yarn spinning technique, and textile construction.

A Universal test machine measures displacement and force while deforming a sample. They can be configured with many different types of grips and accessories to evaluate the myriad properties of textile products that determine their function and feel, such as for instance textile stretchability, tear resistance, burst power, seam power, and dietary fiber elongation.

Generally, Tensile testing of fabrics occurs in two directions: the warp (length) and the weft (width), also referred to as the fill or woof. Shown is an example of tensile testing of a sheet.

UV-Vis-NIR Spectroscopy

Analysis of Natural Illumination and Thermal Insulation

A variety of functional materials, such as fabrics, are being developed for their thermal insulation properties as well as to provide natural lighting. It can be presumed that increasing transmittance and reflectance that is lowering illuminating properties while bringing down transmittance and increasing reflectance produce thermal insulation properties. Transmission and reflectance spectra of materials may be calculated with a UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer designed with an sphere that is integrating

Example of a UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer with integration sphere for measuring thermal insulation properties as well as to provide natural lighting

Transmittance Spectra of Fabrics- Black & Red: Designed for Natural Illumination Blue: Designed for Thermal Insulation

Reflectance Spectra of Fabrics -Black & Red: Designed for Natural Illumination Blue: Designed for Thermal Insulation

Analysis of Dye Colors

As any consumer knows, textile color is an important consideration when selecting and purchasing a product. Used in a range that is wide of for product characterization, UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometers are of help for analysis of dye colors through last item.

UV-Vis-NIR with Double Beam, Single Monochromator for measuring dyes & clothes colors

FTIR and Infrared MicroscopehempDetermination of Pectin Removal LevelhempFTIR spectroscopy enables you to figure out the pectin treatment degree through the purification procedure by monitoring the practical teams within the transmission mode. Using the attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory, the tool is with the capacity of differentiating textile fibers by their chemical structure, commonly categorized by their beginning as normal (age.g.

, cotton, linen, silk, wool), regenerated (e.g. viscose

, cellulose acetate) and artificial (age.g. polyester, polyacrylic, polyamide).

A microscope found in conjunction with FTIR helps recognize noticeable and contaminants that are chemical breaks in the fiber, and blends of fibers.

Example of a FTIR & Microscope

Chemical Structure of Pectin

X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)hempDetermination of Crystallinity

During the different stages of chemi-mechanical treatment of the fibers, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) in transmission mode can be used to determine the crystallinity throughout the process. The goal of the treatment process is to remove aggregates that are amorphous boost the crystallinity. Elimination of amorphous substances, using the enhance of crystallinity index, is caused by the purchased close packaging of macromolecules of cellulose within the materials and strengthening associated with

materials.

Example of an XRD

Textile Characteristic while the Instruments employed for dimension

Geotextiles & Construction

Universal Testing MachineshempGeotextileshempGeotextiles are soil reinforcements found in ecological engineering and construction tasks to avoid erosion, help with drainage, split structural levels, and vegetation establishment that is improve. Due to their fiber that is long length strength,

materials may be used in geotextiles in the shape of textile, fibre mats, and nets. As opposed to plastic that is synthetic,

is renewably sourced and biodegradable, so it does not contaminate the environment at the end of its useful life. Shimadzu’s AGS-X Series Universal Electromechanical Test Frames are ideal for testing the strength of geotextiles.

Worker laying geotextile used for separation and reinforcement in preparation for a building that is new*)Examples of Universal Electromechanical Test Frames

HempcretehempHemp hurd and materials are finding used in a few construction materials, including concrete, insulation, and particleboard. When* that is( hurds are incorporated to lime-based cement, they create a renewably sourced, lightweight, and insulating building material that can replace concrete and synthetic insulation in some applications. Hemp stalk materials are also replacements that are possible lumber potato chips in fiberboard and particleboard materials. Typical tests for construction materials consist of compression and bending tests, and assessment of alterations in real properties because of exposure that is environmental. Hydraulic test frames can achieve the forces required for testing high-strength construction materials, and the software includes a test that is concrete program.

Hempcrete Building

Hydraulic test structures compression for hempcrete

Compression Testing of Hempcrete

High Speed camcorder (10M Frames/Sec)

Natural fibre Composites

Universal Testing Machine

Tensile TestinghempNatural fibre composites combine plant materials, such as for example

, with a polymer matrix to produce materials with improved rigidity and energy and reduced fat. Composites made out of normal materials have actually possible benefits over cup and carbon fibre reinforcements in lots of applications as a result of the balance that is right of, cost, and performance in addition to generally having much lower energy of production.

They are already widely used in the industry that is automotive interior panels such as for instance doorways and trunk liners and therefore are likely to be integrated into more elements as their properties are enhanced. Bending and testing that is shear important because composite strength can vary depending on the direction that force is applied. Natural fiber composites may also be more sensitive to humidity and temperature, so performing testing that is physical thermal chambers is necessary.

Car Door Liners made from Hemp

Car Trunk Liners made from Hemp

Universal Testing Machine 3-point bending

Results of a 3-point test that is bending on a composite material to determine flexural modulus

Thermal Analysis and Capillary Flow Technology

Thermal properties of composite resins

A variety of thermal properties of composite resins and industrial chemicals can be determined using thermal analysis instruments (TGA, DSC, TMA, and DTG) and Capillary Flow Technology (CFT). These properties include glass transition temperature, degradation or temperature that is melting purity analysis, and curing behavior.

Shown below is a DSC dimension of a reaction that is hardening of epoxy resin at various points of heat treatment. The glass transition temperature increases and the enthalpy of reaction decreases.

DSC as the reaction progresses dimension of a hardening result of an epoxy resin at different points of heat application treatment (left) and DSC, TGA, and TMA

Industrial X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT)

Internal framework and features

Industrial X-Ray CT systems offer detail by detail visualization regarding the interior framework and top features of an object. Scanning composites can determine fibre place and positioning, determine volume fraction of various elements, and determine the dimensions and circulation of skin pores. Effective color processing pc software allows observation and analytical calculations of various regions that are internal. CT scanning is also a tool that is useful distinguishing cracks, voids, and disconnections for failure analysis.

This CT scan associated with break fiber composite illustrates areas of delamination and cracking (left), and exemplory case of an X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) instrument.

Paper Goods

Tensile Testing, Particle Size, and MasshempPaper ParametershempHemp paper through the stalk may be used for publishing, newsprint, packaging, cardboard, as well as other paper services and products. Paper services and products are made from the bast that is long or the hurd (or pulp). The different parts of the stalk may have applications that are different. The fibre bast paper happens to be reported to be slim, tough, brittle, and rough even though the hurd happens to be reported to be thicker, better to make, never as strong, with an increase of applications that are daily. Depending on the source of information, dried hemp has been reported to have between 50-85% cellulose, the ingredient that is main paper, while woods have been in the 30-50% range. Consequently, one other 50-70% of compounds from woods need to be eliminated. Relatedly,

has reduced levels of lignin, which needs to be eliminated through the procedure of making paper services and products. The lignin levels are 5-24% and 20-35% for hemp and woods, correspondingly. Hemp paper may be bleached with hydrogen peroxide as opposed to the toxic chlorine or dioxin chemicals combined with paper from woods.hempHemp reaches readiness in 3-4 months while woods need 20-80 years and, in addition, hemp has four times more dietary fiber than a forest utilizing the landmass that is same. Thus,

paper can be produced at a much faster rate. It also has been reported that

paper products can be recycled eight times, while tree products can only be recycled less than half the true range times.

While online sensors are open to determine some manufacturing parameters, lab-scale technique development may need laboratory instruments. Some parameters measured are weight, moisture profile, ash content, color, brightness, smoothness, gloss, coat fat, development, porosity, fibre orientation, surface properties, tear power and opacity. As an example, a tester that is universal be used for the determination of breaking strength, breaking length, tearing strength on the long and short side, elongation, fold resistance, and more. Analytical, top-loading, and balances that are moisture open to determine weight and dampness profiles.

In the paper industry, coatings, materials, fillers, sizing agents, as well as other things affect a paper’s properties, such as for instance brightness, color, gloss, and opacity. A particle size analyzer is great for this application.

Energy

High-Performance Fluid Chromatography (HPLC)hempBioethanol

The 2007 legislation that is federal encouraged production of biodiesel in the United States has also increased production of ethanol in an effort to offset dependence on fossil fuels and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The material that is cellulosic

may be changed into sugars and fermented into ethanol to be utilized as a supplement in gas, much as is completed with corn and soybean biomass.

Careful attention needs to be compensated to your fermentation procedure to ensure its effectiveness and also the purity regarding the ethanol product that is final. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is an method that is ideal monitoring the transformation of sugars to liquor during fermentation.

HPLC and chromatogram of sugars to ethanol during fermentation 34 hours following the procedure started. Peaks are 1) DP4+ (oligosaccharides with ≥4 degrees of polymerization), 2) DP3 (oligosaccharides with 3 examples of polymerization), 3) Maltose, 4) Glucose, 5) Lactic acid, 6) Glycerol, 7) Acetic acid, 8) Ethanol

Gas Chromatography (GC)

After fermentation is complete, the ethanol that is produced be denatured to ensure that it is not taxed nor used for human consumption. Following test methods such as ASTM D5501, which specifies GC-FID, allows for the determination of the ethanol content in ethanol denatured with gasoline or methanol.

GC-FID And chromatogram ethanol and methanol content in a fuel ethanol denatured with gasoline by ASTM method D5501.hempConclusionhempFor many, the value of hemp has been focused primarily on the flower and seeds. However, the other parts of the plant, specifically the stalk, leaves, and root, also offer tremendous growth and value potential. Because of room restrictions, currently talking about most of the possible uses of

and hemp-based services and products just isn’t a objective that is feasible this communication focused solely on applications related to the stalk. Future communications will address applications related to other parts of the plant.hempUsing hemp for industrial products has its challenges. For example, it’s not easy to disrupt industries with hundreds or thousands of years of proven supply chains. Food-grade plastics must be FDA compliant and USDA certified to ensure no hazards are in the plastics requiring testing that is new new services and products. Present agricultural and processor gear will have to be modified for

to ensure that, in a stage that is single the crop is divided into stalks, seeds, and leaves. Fiber will require processing that is big, much like corn. In addition, processing* that is( for paper or textiles differs from how cotton is processed.

Finally, hemp-based products, like the products they replace, will require testing to ensure safety, reliability, accuracy, purity, stability, durability, etc. This testing may require several analytical instruments, physical testing machines, x-ray equipment, and other devices.

Despite these challenges, the benefits of this green, low-carbon crop are clear. And with the commitment that is proper the whole

plant provides long-lasting possibility sustainable development. hempLearn more at www.GrowYourLab.com

This content is supplied as a membership advantage to the business that is valuable level. Due to several factors including the variances in state

laws and the differences in interpretation of federal law, NHA makes no warrants of the legality, efficacy or safety of any product, service or statement made by any party that is third(*)We encourage all users and also the public that is general do their particular homework on any company or item, and understanding their state’s and federal regulations, before selecting to buy any product or contracting for just about any service.(*)

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