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Hemp paper indicates paper varieties consisting exclusively or to a substantial extent from pulp obtained from fibers of industrial hemp. The solutions are primarily specialty papers such as cigarette paper, banknotes and technical filter papers. Compared to wood pulp, hemp pulp delivers a 4 to 5 occasions longer fibre, a considerably decrease lignin fraction as properly as a larger tear resistance and tensile strength. Nevertheless, production expenses are about 4 occasions larger than for paper from wood, so hemp paper could not be utilised for mass applications as printing, writing and packaging paper.
The 1st identified coarse paper, produced from hemp, dates to the early Western Han Dynasty, 200 years just before the nominal invention of papermaking by Cai Lun, who enhanced and standardized paper production applying a variety of economical components, such as hemp ends, about 2000 years ago. Recycled hemp clothes, rags, and fishing nets have been utilised as inputs for paper production. By the sixth century AD, the papermaking procedure spread to Korea, exactly where cannabis had been utilised previously for thousands of years, and Japan, exactly where cannabis had been utilised for 10,000 years.
Hemp paper only reached Europe in the 13th century by way of the Middle East. In Germany it has been established for the 1st time in the 14th century. It was not till the 19th century that strategies have been established for the production of paper from wood pulp, which have been less expensive than the hemp paper production and, above all, repressed in the location of writing and printing papers. Notably, the 1st copies of the Bible have been produced of hemp paper.
The Saint Petersburg, Russia, paper mill of Goznak opened in 1818. It utilised hemp as its key input material. Paper from the mill was utilised in the printing of “bank notes, stamped paper, credit bills, postal stamps, bonds, stocks, and other watermarked paper.”
In 1916, U.S. Division of Agriculture chief scientists Lyster Hoxie Dewey and Jason L. Merrill designed paper produced from hemp pulp and concluded that paper from hemp hurds was “favorable in comparison with these utilised with pulp wood.” The chemical composition of hemp hurds is equivalent to that of wood, generating hemp a very good selection as a raw material for manufacturing paper. Modern day analysis has not confirmed the constructive getting about hemp hurds from 1916. A later book about hemp and other fibers by the similar L.H. Dewey(1943) have no words about hemp as a raw material for production of paper. Dried hemp has about 57% cellulose (the principal ingredient in paper), compared to about 40-50% in wood. Hemp also has the benefit of a decrease lignin content material: hemp includes only five-24% lignin against the 20-35% identified in wood. This lignin have to be removed chemically and wood needs a lot more use of chemical substances in the procedure. The actual production of hemp fiber in the U.S continued to decline till 1933 to about 500 tons/year. Amongst 1934 and 1935, the cultivation of hemp started to improve, but nonetheless at a extremely low level and with no considerable improve of paper from hemp.
Immediately after the Second Planet War, industrial hemp was only grown on micro-plots. Even though the industrial hemp bred in the 1950s and 1960s is harmless due to the fact of the nearly total absence of THC, cultivation has been banned in several nations in current decades. In Germany, expanding hemp was absolutely prohibited among 1982 and 1995 by the Betäubungsmittelgesetz (Narcotics Act, the national controlled-substances law) in order to protect against the illegal use of cannabis as a narcotic. In particular in France, the varieties of hemp utilised for the manufacture of cigarette paper have been nonetheless in use and grown.
Ahead of the industrialisation of paper production the most typical fibre supply was recycled fibres from utilised textiles, referred to as rags. The rags have been from hemp, linen and cotton. A procedure for removing printing inks from recycled paper was invented by German jurist Justus Claproth in 1774. Right now this strategy is referred to as deinking. It was not till the introduction of wood pulp in 1843 that paper production was not dependent on recycled components from ragpickers…..