Phytocannabinoids | Endocannabinoid Program | CB1R and CB2R


The endocannabinoid technique (ECS) is universally identified in Phylum Chordates. There are 3 subphyla of Chordates, and humans fall into the subphylum recognized as vertebrata – which means they have a backbone. 

The human ECS is an intricate lipid signaling technique that regulates homeostatic and physiological functions such as the modulation of discomfort and inflammation. 

The human ECS is comprised of receptors recognized as CB1R and CB2R. 

CB1R’s are mainly positioned on nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, whilst CB2R’s are identified on immune cells. There is some carryover, but in the interest of simplicity, this characterization will suffice. 

These receptors are activated by endocannabinoids, which are endogenous metabolites (created in the physique) that bind to receptors. 

These molecules are derived from arachidonic acid, anandamide and two-arachidonoyglycerol. 

They’re existence and effects are fairly shot-lived due to their degradation by two nicely-characterized enzymes, the fatty acid amide hydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase. 

Phytocannabinoid Biosynthesis

Phytocannabinoids are terpenophenolic compounds created from fatty acids and isoprenoids precursors as element of the secondary metabolism of cannabis.

 The secondary metabolism of plants refers to pathways and smaller molecule solutions of metabolism that are not necessarily expected for the survival of the organism.

In the context of C. Sativa L., the secondary metabolism would be the pathways that lead to the formation of the smaller molecule solutions recognized as phytocannabinoids.

The cannabis plant produces quite a few smaller molecules, but in the interest of brevity, we will concentrate on the most important and most prevalent molecules. These include things like:

  • (THC) D-9 tertrahydrocannabidiol 

The formation of these complicated molecules starts with the brief-chain fatty acid recognized as hexanoic acid.

There are a number of enzymes that play a important part in the biosynthesis of cannabinoids.

These enzymes are as follows:

  • Acyl Activating Enzyme 1 (AAE1)
  • Olivetolic Acid Cyclase (OAC)
  • Cannabigerolic Acid Synthase (CBGAS)
  • Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid Synthase (THCAS)
  • Cannabidiolic Acid Synthase (CBDAS)
  • Cannabichromenic Acid Synthase (CBCAS)

The precise chemical reactions via which these enzymes build phytocannabinoids can be challenging to fully grasp, but what is crucial is that AAE1, OLS, and OAC operate on hexanoic acid and byproducts to type CBGAS.

CBGAS is the enzyme accountable for the production of cannabigerolic acid (CBGA).

The monoterpene moiety of CBGA is stereoselectively cyclized by the 3 various enzymes, which means that a single steroisomer is formed, even even though additional than 1 is probable.

These enzymes are:

  • Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid Synthase (THCAS)
  • Cannabidiolic Acid Synthase (CBDAS)
  • Cannabichromenic Acid Synthase (CBCAS)

In other words, 3 separate enzymes function upon CBGA to create THC-acid, CBD-acid, and CBC-acid.

Phytocannabinoids and the Human ECS

Phytocannabinoids approximate the endocannabinoids we create naturally. When we ingest them, in their decarboxylated type, they activate the receptors in our ECS – either CB1R or CB2R.

D-9 tertrahydrocannabidiol is a potent activator of the CB1R, whilst the non-psychoactive CBD is a incredibly low affinity CB1 ligand.

What this indicates is that CB1R’s, positioned in the brain and spinal cord, are very sensitive to THC, and have significantly less tendency to type chemical bonds with CBD molecules.

Even so, CBD molecules will act as a direct blockade of CB1R’s which exerts a measure of manage more than some of the side effects of THC, which includes anxiousness, dysphoria, panic reactions and euphoria. In addition, it also seems to boost the therapeutic activity of THC.

In this way, CBD behaves somewhat like a non-competitive receptor antagonist. This indicates that it binds to the very same cell as THC, but not the very same website on the cell. In so carrying out, it prevents the activation of the receptor by THC. This is in contrast to competitive receptor antagonists which would bind to the very same receptor website as THC.

This is why some individuals say that THC and CBD are most productive when utilized collectively, for the reason that CBD attenuates some of the significantly less favourable effects of THC, and can make common dosing additional tolerable.

In spite of becoming a low affinity CB1 ligand, CBD does behave as a CB2R inverse agonist. This is substantial insofar as there is proof that CB2R inverse agonism can inhibit immune cell migration and decrease clinical indicators of inflammation. This could be the explanation for why CBD has such potent anti-inflammatory properties.


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